Ancient icon-words in the languages of the Indo-European community have drawn the attention not only of scholars but also of general public both in the discussions about the origins of one people or another and in political struggles for a long time. Now these questions become more sensitive in connection with the net that 1993 was proclaimed by UNESCO "The Year of the Trypillian culture") the brilliant archaeological culture, opened by Vikentiy Khvoika exactly 100 years ago near the village of Trypillya near Kyiv. There can be no doubt that the Trypillian culture, which spread from today's Romania to the Don river during 5000-3000 B.C., had its origins in Asia Minor and the Balkans and a great heritage in the cultures of the countries of this region. So, who was the Trypillian population: the ancestors of the Thracians, the Slavs or, maybe, the Semites?.. The last point of view seems to give some possibility to explain the ancient, pre-historic links of the Indo-European, Semitic and other communities of Europe and Asia.
Being attracted by such explanations, scholars involuntarily proceed from widespread imaginings about history as a movement of large numbers of people in figurative ("the people is the creator of the history") and in literal (migrations and raids) senses of such word-combinations. According to this imagination, one people inevitably had to clash with another being at war or co-existing, adopting the higher culture of a neighbour or of a conqueror or on the contrary. But new scientific facts, accumulated for the last half-century by the scholars of various countries, indicate that the mutual relations of the pre-historic (pre-literate) ethnic groups were considerably moderate: pre-class societies were far more respectful of the sovereignty of tribes and nationalities than the slave owning and succeeding systems.
Then how were the interethnic relations regulated, and how did mutual influences spread? The new facts help answer these questions. The data can be divided in three groups. The first, the most evident one, is a system of the sanctuaries-observatories dated from 5000 to 1000 B.C., along the northern border of that day's arable forming from Transylvania to Britain and middle Dnipro river region, and then to the inter-mountain of Ural and Altai. According to the testimonies of Herodotus, Diodor us and other ancient authors, the wandering priests used that system as late as 500 B.C.; spreading to the South and to the North, and this system existed in Europe and Asia until the adoption of the Christianity (see picture 1). The second group of data more than 100 clay tables dated 4000-3000 B.C. with the inscriptions of the Sumerian type, which come from different archaeological cultures of several countries in the middle Danube valley. The third group the genealogy of tribes and heroes, which is preserved in Greek mythology, but came (as modem science testifies) from the pre-Grecian, Indo-European mists. Similar ethno-chronological analysis, drawing on modern archaeological and linguistic data, has already begun.
Today we can imagine an absolutely new picture of Indo-European-Semitic, Indo-European-Kartvelian and other links, in particular in the Ukrainian Dnipro valley, that was considered by Herodotus, "the lather of history", the best place for human existence. Precisely this territory became the center of the Indo-European community in 5000-2000 B.C.
A new picture of the civilising process comes from the fact that the flight of the Indo-European civilisation on the Dnipro had been preceded by two other nights: of Asia Minor and in the Danube valley.
The origin of Indo-European civilisation began in Asia Minor the western region of the most ancient agricultural and stock-breeding, which in 9000-7000 B.C. started to supplant hunting. It was precisely this new type of husbandry, which then spread over the vast plains of Oikumena.
As a result of demographic changes of those who bore this new type of husbandry, of its attraction for neighbouring hunters, and in the search for new fertile soils, the Indo-Europeans of Asia Minor not only rendered habitable the Danube valley between the sea and the Carpethians as early as 6000 B.C., but created there the first state in the worldAratta, "the ploughmen's state".
The second wave of "Indo-Euro-peanization" began from Asia Minor nearly in the middle of the fifth millennium B.C. It was represented in the Balkans by the archaeological culture of Vinic and its derivatives. And the previous, first wave, which had created Aratta, had to move its centre farther along the shores of the Black Sea - to the Dnipro valley.
According to the written account, it happened this way. Under the threat of raid by "Ushhara Goddess soldiers" from the East, the consolidation of the former supporters of patriarchal and matriarchal systems, which confessed the cult of the Fertility God Kullu and the original mother Gatumdug, was held in Aratta. It did not avoid the raid. But then it happened to be the synthesis of cultures, as Aratta's center moved closer to the Dnipro River. The cult of Goddess Tnanny (the incarnation of the primal mother and of the planet Venus as well) with dear worship of snakes and twins, or mother-daughter, appeared here and began to spread. The mysterious "knowledge of Tnanny's twins" (in the orchard of which the Sun God judged the dead) were mentioned in the inscriptions of the Trypillian culture. But on the periphery of the Aratta's world view male idols also existed: Any, God of the Sky, Enlil, creator of the World and others. Precisely these three idols would head later the Sumerian pantheon. Scholars consider the Sumerians to be neither Indo-Europeans nor Semites but another community according to the accepted in the modern linguistic classification. The same can be said about Aratta, in view of its pre-Sumerian speech and written language. But it is commonly known that ethnic group and "the ploughmen's country" culture formed a real base of just the Indo-European peoples. The memory about Aratta had been preserved in the Iranian Arta (ideal country and the highest worldview), in Bharata ("the Divine Aratta", the proper name of India), in Greek Ortopolis (semi-mythical town like Arta), in Artoplot river and valley in the Poltava region in Ukraine; in the Artania principality with its capital Arta (the news about it the Arabian travellers perhaps derived from Iranian tradition). Slavic Artonia belonged to Kyivan Rus' and looked like an immense island between the Dnipro, Tyasmyn and Irdyn' or Ross riversthe same place where the center of Aratta had nourished before the Sumer came into existence. Summing up all the data given above and proceeding from the fact that Aratta had appeared during the first "Indo-European wave", its ethnic origins should be dated the time when the Indo-European community first began to expand beyond the border of its most ancient homeland, which linguists call Borealia. It is considered that the ancestors of both the Indo-Europeans and the Altaians belonged to that community, and it was also close to the Semites and to the Kartvelians. That relic frontier between those two communities (but all the same with the clear tendency of the last) was preserved later in Aratta and Sumer. In spite of this Aratta had been coming under the Indo-European influence more and more in its continuous, neighbourly contacts with the bearers of the second and succeeding waves of the Indo-Europeans. Sumer, on the contrary, come under the Semitic influence, under the pressure of migra-tory waves from the Arabian peninsula. One of these waves, as we should say below, rolled to the Dnipro river.
The relationship of Aratta in the Dnipro valley to the appearance of Sumer, requires further classification. But the most important reason for contact is rather obvious. It is connected with formation of the Indo-European communitywith the untwisting, so to say, of its "gene spiral" near the Black and Azov seas. When "the second Indo-European wave" influenced the transfer of kernel (Aratta state) of the "first wave" from the Danube to the Dnipro region, then Aratta on the Dnipro ("the Trypillian culture") brought to an end all the contacts with its primal homeland in Asia Minor through the Balkan peninsula, and began to pave a new way through the Caucasus. At the same time some travellers penetrated into the Lower Mesopotamia. Undoubtedly, the be-ginning of the ArattaSumerian links were made by the small group of priests, which were persuaded, first of all, by economic objects: selective, calendar-astronomic and others. But soon enough that way became the "Azov-Black Sea line of development of the steppe Neolithic", opened by the famous archaeologist Valentyn Danylenko. That "line" reproduced in its settlements, burial places, and other monuments the migration of clans and small tribes, which consider-ably differed from the more numerous local population and had the signs of the Trypillian culture and of the "Kuro-Araks culture" of the Transcaucasus and Asia Minor. Perhaps, the Iranian Aratta appeared on the basis of the latter culture.
|According to the finds of Velyko-Olexandrivsky
barrow. Stone Grave and also to the monuments placed near
them, it can be seen how the priests formed a powerful
caste ("Kemi-Obynsky culture") and introduced
it among the representatives of the "hole
culture" maybe, with the purpose of enhancing
the authority of Aratta and Sumer (and other state
formations connected with them) and to ensure their
connection through the Azov-Black Sea steppes...
The common ethnic-cultural and economic features of the first and second waves of "the Indo-Europeanization" of the zone around the Black Sea caused the priests of both waves to come to a mutual understanding. And the priests of "Vinic culture" and of cultures derivative from it followed the way which had been paved by the priests of Aratta and Sumer. They left such monuments, as bases of Grygoriapol and Lysyi barrows on the Lower Dnister and Don rivers (with sanctuaries, close to the observatories of Transylvania and to the Druid's cults of oaks and bulls); visible tracks of the second wave and of its direct contact with the civilisations of Near East could be traced even in the tombs of the "Novosvobodnyanskaya culture" of the North Caucasus.
The "Maikop culture" preceded the "Novosvobodnyanskaya archaeological culture". Its conventional name is connected with a huge barrow near the town of Maikop. Modern researchers today have no doubts that "the Maikop culture" was formed by the settlers from Near East. Doubts have been raised whether "the Maikop culture" is their most ancient site, whether its creators came from already habitable territory. And a very debatable question is the ethnic identity of this archaeological culture. Today the most that can be stipulated is the position of Volodymyr Safronov about the Semites belonging of the representatives of the "Maikop culture". Searching the
Burial place of the Hurryt-Aryan chief from the High Grave near the village of Starosillya, Velyko-Olexandrivskyi district, Kherson region. The middle of the III millennium B.C.
accordance with their particular artefacts, pottery, etc., the explorer stopped at Harran (North of Mesopotamia). The later comparison of Sumerian-Accadian chronicles, the Bible and the traces of destruction of settlements made it possible to affirm that the "Maikop culture" belonged to the Aramean tribe of the patriarch Fara, who had appeared for the first time in the Sumerian Ira on the way to Harran. Here this tribe formed a part of the State of Ebla, where the Western Semitic ethnos prevailed. After the Accadian family had begun to rule in Sumer, Harra was destroyed about 2500 B.C., and the Fara tribe moved to the North Caucasus. Hence several "Maikop" dishes, and maybe individual travellers or their small groups penetrated to the Dnipro valley; and most clearly this ethno-cultural wave becomes apparent in the lower stratum of the Mykhailivske settlement over the Dnipro crossing near Novo-Vorontsovka.
Perhaps, exactly in connection with these historic events, as Safronov writes, "the traces of the Semitic-speaking tribes in the North Caucasus are confirmed by 12 isoglottic lines of cultural lexis". There are fewer such influences in the Eastern-Slav languages, and at the same time part of those influences can be explained by long preservation of the Aratta tradition in the Dnipro river region. Military raids of the Accadian-Sumerian rulers of Sargon and Naramsin to the north of Mesopotamia stirred up not only the Semites but also the Indo-European nationalities of Hettians, Hurryts and others. Some explorers connect the last with "the Kuro-Araks archaeological culture" and attribute them to the Kartvelian, the Georgian's ancestors. In any case close contacts of the Hurryts with the Kartvelians and with the representatives of "Kuro-Araks culture" are undoubted.
Proceeding from the specific calendars, the connection with the Transcaucasus and some other signs, we can conclude, that so-called "old village (starosilsky)" and novotytarian cultural types belonged to the Hurryts; they were tribes, which had appeared in the steppes round the Asov and Black seas at the border of "Maikop" and "Novosvobodnenskaya" cultures. The most remarkable monument of those types are known now in the low regions of the Dnipro, in the region of the Velyko-Olexan-drivskyi barrow already familiar to us. There is every reason to consider that the representatives of the "old village" culture had reached those places very soon from the Caucasus, having used the route found by their predecessors.
It was observed that the most ancient representatives of the "old village culture" of the Lower Dnipro headed the union of the Hurryts and the Aryans and its short-term raid to the Caucasus and return. That event, which took place in the 24th-23rd centuries B.C. was an answer at the north raid of Sargon the 1st and led to the consolidation of the "North peoples" against him... After the returning the allies founded at the place of the Mykhailivske settlement the most ancient in the Eastern Europe fortress. The pre-history of the first Aryan (by ruling dynasty) state Mitanni should begun with this fortress. The state in the 18th-13th centuries B.C. was situated in Northern Mesopotamia, but it was conceived (as Oleg Trubachov, a linguist, affirmed) somewhere near the Sea of Azov.
It has been ascertained that each of the nationalities, which co-existed and were closely interwoven with each other from the Danube River to the Kuban, especially in the Lower Dnipro, made its contribution to the material and spiritual treasury of the Aryan community. Among the Aryans some myths about the SaviourGandhavra and about Indra, who fought with serpents, appeared, and later-other myths about the connoisseur of happy ways, patron of well-being Pushan. Those two groups of imaginations were corrected accordingly by the representatives of two cultures:"Kemi-Obynsky" (mainly the ancestors of the Arattians) and "old village". In addition, the latter two ethno-cultural groups brought to the common treasury myths about the original mother Adity and her descendants, and also about the Gods of the Sun Surya and Savitar, about the destroyer Rudra and his sons... The Aryan priests (first of all, the same representatives of the "Kemi-Obynsky culture") took care to collect and preserve the wisdom of many tribes and families of the multi-ethnic community in the steppes near the Azov and Black seas. That enormous work, rep-resented both in the barrows in Ukraine and in the Indian collection of Rigveda's hymns, was aimed at strengthening the community, to support the peace and well-being of the whole Aryan world.
We part with this mysterious world in the late third millenium B.C.
It was a time when Sumer became extinct and Babylonia appeared from its ruins; when its slave-owning cultural influence together with ethnic manifestations washed the Dnipro and Danube valleys. At the same time, the "ploughmen's country" Aratta temporarily disappeared. Being as yet a pre-slave-owning, communal ("primitive communist") system, it seems to have been dissolved among relatedby social system and by belonging to the Indo-European community "arehaeologic cultures" for nearly half a century. It "dissolved" as a "Trypillian arehaeologic culture". But its priests had left an undying tradition, which revived in the "black forest" -Cimmerian culture and existed upon to the time of Kyivan Rus'.
|Burial mounds in the Kherson region. The Aratta- Sumerian sacred place from Velyko-Olexandrivskyi mound (in the middle) and the tomb of the Aryan priest-brahman from High Grave. IV-III millennium B.C.||"Dissolving",
Aratta stimulated the origin of the "Ingul
culture" in the early second century B.C. This
culture (named after the Ingul river situated between the
Bug and Dnipro rivers) stopped the rise of Hurryts and
influences related to them, and began to spread up to the
Caucasus (it seems even farther), and than to the
Balkans. Very ancient features of the Indo-European
community, characteristic for Aratta, became apparent in
What conclusions can we draw proceeding from the above examination of the Indo-European-Semitic-Kartvelian links in the Ukrainian Dnipro valley?
1. Two periods of such links can be traced. With the beginning of the "Trypillian archaeological culture"(i.e.Aratta) in 5000 B.C. Those links had the character of survivals of the "Borealian language community" from which "Indo-European" and "Altaian" communities (according to the linguistic point of view) proceeded. In the end of 3000 B.C. the mentioned above survivals were covered by the migratory waves of a small Semitic group( "Maikop culture") and of a considerably larger Kartvelian group, or closely related Indo-European Hurryts ("the old village cultural type"). These waves were conditioned by the expansion of Sargon and Naramsin founders of the Accadian family in Suroer to Northern Mesopotamia. The Semitic-Aramean wave slopped at the North Caucasus and only its echo reached the Dnipro (in the form of different things and testimonies, not excepting travellers or even delegations). The Kartvelian wave was represented by a not numerous, but very active group (small tribe), which being concentrated on the Lower Dnipro reached as far as the Danube region.
2. The examined links had an exclusively peaceful character in the Azov-Black Sea steppes. They were regulated by priests and were directed at economic and social needs. The priority of that regulation belonged to Aratta and in considerably less measure to Sumer in Mesopotamia or to its allies. Contacts of these states stimulated formation of the famous "Indo-European community" branchthe Aryan community, the manifestation of which during 4000-3000 B.C. became the "hole archaeological culture"(and also "Kemi-Obynsky" culture and "old village" cultural type).
The utmost importance of the Ukrainian Dnipro river region in the history of European, Iranian and Indian civilisations should be emphasised in the end of the article. Here (first of all the territory of today's Cherkassy region) the most ancient kernel of the "Indo-European community", Aratta, developed. The" ploughmen's country" Aratta was a direct successor of the first in the world state which had appeared in the Danube river region in 6000 B.C. Aratta stimulated formation of Sumer and the Arian community in the Asov-Black sea steppes to ensure relations with Sumer. The Lower Dnipro (territory of today's Kherson and Mykolaiv regions, part of the Zaporizhia and Dnipropetrovsk regions) became the original native land for the Aryan community. The Aryan's spread Aratta's fame from Greece to Palestine and India where the rests of its culture are still preserved in Hinduism. In the Dnipro region the Aratta Arta-Artania tradition existed up to the Tatar-Mongol raid at the end of the Kyivan Rus' period. Revived later by the Cossacks that tradition became a part of the Ukrainian culture.